Sunday, January 16, 2011

Barley, Cebada, Hordeum vulgare

Known to humans since at least 8500 BC, barley remains to be one of the most important crops. Being a staple  in Sumeria, Egypt as far back as 3000 BC at least  barley spread fast  and was grown as far as Korea by 1500 BC. Now, 105 countries are growing barley commercially.
World production in 2009  was over 150 271 573 tons, leaving  a potential consumer with 22.06 kg of barley to play with. You can make almost 189 liters (48-48.5 gallons) of beer with it, or if you decide to eat it it will last you well over 38 days at 2000 calories a day.
Biggest barley producer is Russia with 17 880 760 tonnes as of 2009.
Biggest producer per capita is  Australia with over 370 kg of barley as of  2009. Lithuania had 264.1 kg of barley  per capita  as of 2009.  4.24% of Lithuanian territory was used for barley production in 2009.
Ukraine doesn't fall far behind with 258.3 kg per capita produced, Ukraine is also the biggest barley exporter in the world with about 6 000 000 tons exported (total barley exports worldwide are about 18.5 million tons). 8.27 % of Ukrainian territory , or 16.02% of all of their arable land, were used for barley production in 2009. Do you like beer, BBQ ribs , bacon? Thank Ukrainians for all that barley.  One can only imagine the cost of animal feed and malt if  only 12 million tonnes of barley were available for international trade.

Total world  barley exports as of 2010:

1) Ukraine  5.752 000 tonnes  32.9% 
2)Australia  3.867 000 tonnes 22.1%
3)EU          2.500 000 tonnes 14.3%
4) Russia    2.086 000 tonnes 11.9%
5) Canada  1.203 000 tonnes 6.9%
6)Turkey       800 000 tonnes  4.6%
7)Argentina   549 000 tonnes  3.1%
8)Kazakhstan354 000 tonnes  2%
9) USA         151 000 tonnes 0.9%
10)India        150 000 tonnes 0.9%
11) Others      80 000 tonnes 0.5%


World total barley exports, 2010 : 17 492 000 tonnes ( source: USDA )

Japan is usually the biggest barley buyer worldwide.

Crop of barley  of 2009 was big enough to feed  725 million people at 2000 calories a day, or to fill  about 513 000 Olympic-sized swimming pools with beer.Or perhaps you'd prefer a little sea of beer, 10 by 10 miles and almost 17 feet deep. Every male in the world  regardless of age would have to drink over two pints a day to drink it all within a year..

54 129 438 hectares were used for barley production in 2009, a territory bigger than Yemen and Eastern Timore combined. That's almost 3.44%  of all arable land in the world.
Best crop since 1961 was  177.7 million tons in 1990, worst-- 72.4m.tonnes of barley  in 1961.

Land usage: decrease by about 1% since 1961. Record was set in 1979, 83 694 892 hectares

9 292 099 tonnes of barley were used for seeds in 2009.

Best  barley yields ever (since 1961) were reached in 2009 , average yield worldwide was 2776 kg per hectare, worst-1328kg in 1961. Individually the record was set in Belgium (2009)  at 8397 kg per hectare.
Barley costs around $190-200 per ton, and world crop is about  $28 billion worth


List of all articles at Ironrye:
 http://ironrye.blogspot.com/2011/10/list-of-all-articles-at-iron-rye.html


My main sources are fao.org, usda.gov, cia.gov, alibaba.com among many others


Production  of barley by country:

item200720082009
Afghanistan
Barley
370000333000486000
Albania
Barley
350036004500
Algeria
Barley
11866583959222203359
Argentina
Barley
148169016900851362669
Armenia
Barley
162533149091145141
Australia
Barley
716016879965068098000
Austria
Barley
810980967921835107
Azerbaijan
Barley
474646605525643680
Bangladesh
Barley
755536
M
Belarus
Barley
191127022118902123424
Belgium
Barley
374454328768452600
Bhutan
Barley
48355000 5000F
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Barley
725897322874074
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Barley
607487782177222
Brazil
Barley
235577236912201451
Bulgaria
Barley
419762878001858679
Canada
Barley
10983900117814009517200
Chile
Barley
562276689553325
China
Barley
3451000* 3100000 3400000
Colombia
Barley
77301104217567
Croatia
Barley
225265279106243609
Cyprus
Barley
520074680630000
Czech Republic
Barley
189340822438652003032
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Barley
75000* 65000*
M
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Barley
500 500F
M
Denmark
Barley
310420033960003421000
Ecuador
Barley
247621795421423
Egypt
Barley
178344149238146269
Eritrea
Barley
3948939489
M
Estonia
Barley
362769349100376945
Ethiopia
Barley
127068013521481519404*
Finland
Barley
198440021286002171000
France
Barley
94735701217130012879600
Georgia
Barley
403004930020000
Germany
Barley
103842181196711412288100
Greece
Barley
274373380000280000
Guatemala
Barley
1000F 1000F
M
Hungary
Barley
101782714670551063881
India
Barley
133000011961001690000
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Barley
310398015473943446227
Iraq
Barley
748000403999501508
Ireland
Barley
112450012497001167000
Israel
Barley
855055005135
Italy
Barley
122528212366971049200
Japan
Barley
194600217200179200
Jordan
Barley
132601032817062
Kazakhstan
Barley
244119020585502519000
Kenya
Barley
45000 4459742147
Kuwait
Barley
199019902000F
Kyrgyzstan
Barley
227236210600289670
Latvia
Barley
350500307100265500
Lebanon
Barley
331002900034000F
Lesotho
Barley
450F 410F 720F
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Barley
100000100000
M
Lithuania
Barley
1013700970400858200
Luxembourg
Barley
446405281654398
Malta
Barley
1600F 1600F 1600F
Mauritania
Barley
10901090
M
Mexico
Barley
653074811358746000*
Mongolia
Barley
390813941844
Montenegro
Barley
10581200F
M
Morocco
Barley
7625501353240
M
Myanmar
Barley


M
M
Nepal
Barley
282932808223224
Netherlands
Barley
260000310200309600
New Zealand
Barley
355627408730435270
Norway
Barley
485300558200435000
Occupied Palestinian Territory
Barley
149579740
M
Oman
Barley
341735003600F
Pakistan
Barley
930008740082000
Peru
Barley
177479185981213208
Poland
Barley
400809636194603983900
Portugal
Barley
739009980075900
Qatar
Barley
5000 5000F
M
Republic of Korea
Barley
168891170053
M
Republic of Moldova
Barley
115237353124245000*
Romania
Barley
53142012094101182062
Russian Federation
Barley
155590752314845017880760
Rwanda
Barley

M
M
M
Saudi Arabia
Barley
2800024000
M
Serbia
Barley
258998344141302527
Slovakia
Barley
659621891317675475
Slovenia
Barley
679047678870793
South Africa
Barley
222500192000216000
Spain
Barley
11945319112611007399700
Sudan
Barley

M
M
M
Sweden
Barley
143900016716001676600
Switzerland
Barley
210500200341198061
Syrian Arab Republic
Barley
784479261100845669
Tajikistan
Barley
710395760170000F
Thailand
Barley
18000F 18000F
M
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Barley
106635162779146372
Tunisia
Barley
535100254000
Turkey
Barley
730680059230007300000
Turkmenistan
Barley
58700* 58700F
M
Ukraine
Barley
59808001261150011833100
United Kingdom
Barley
507900061440006969000
United Republic of Tanzania
Barley
4500F 4500F
M
United States of America
Barley
457452052295904949370
Uruguay
Barley
310200405500464071
Uzbekistan
Barley
90000* 157000* 210000*
Western Sahara
Barley
2000F 2000F
M
Yemen
Barley
346802670423241
Zambia
Barley
2350F 2350F
M
Zimbabwe
Barley
4800048000F
M
World + (Total)
Barley
134778729A 155053722A 150271573A


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Barley  in other languages:

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